Saturday, July 30, 2016

Who Was World War I's Tommy Atkins

From Wikipedia.

Tommy Atkins (often just Tommy) is slang for a common soldier in the British Army.  It was well established during the 19th century, but especially connected to World War I.

It can be used as a term of reference, or as a form of address.  German soldiers would call out to "Tommy" across no man's land if they wished to speak to a British soldier.  French and Commonwealth sodliers also often referred to British troops as "Tommies."


Friday, July 29, 2016

Some Other World War I Names: Diggers and Dogfaces

From Wikipedia, which has articles on each of these:

**  FRANK BUCKLES--  The last and longest-living of America's "Doughboys."  Died February 27, 2011.

**  DIGGER--  Term used for Australian soldiers.

**  DOGFACE-- Military term

**  POILU--  Name used for French soldiers during the war.

**  TOMMY AKINS--  Term used for British soldiers during the war.


Thursday, July 28, 2016

Mexican War or Mexican-American War?

I see that the Wikipedia article that I used for the last several "doughboy" entries, referred to the war as the Mexican-American War.  All my life I was taught and read that it was the Mexican War.

I imagine it was changed because of the large numbers of Mexicans living in the United States these days.

But I will continue to call it the Mexican War.

Stuck In the Old Days.  --Cooter

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

America's "Doughboys"-- Part 3: A Mexican War Connection

The term "Doughboy" as applied to U.S. infantry first appears in military accounts during the Mexican War without any definite precedent that can be found.

One possibility is that it was a put-down by cavalrymen on foot soldiers because the brass buttons on their uniforms looked like flour dumplings or dough cakes called "doughboys," or because of the flour or pipe clay they used to polish their white belts.

Another possible reason was that U.S. infantry forces were constantly covered with chalky dust from marching through northern Mexico which gave them the appearance of unbaked dough.  Or, possibly the dust made them resemble the mud bricks used in the area called adobe which word somehow transformed into doughboy.

Also, American soldiers of the 1840s and 1850s cooked field rations into doughy flour-and-rice concoctions baked in the ashes of the camp fire.

Of course, as already mentioned, the reason it became a name for our servicemen in World War I was possibly the popularity of the million of doughnuts served by female Salvation Army members.


Tuesday, July 26, 2016

America's "Doughboys"-- Part 2: Doughboys Eventually Became G.I.s in World War II

Indeed, the term was still in use for American military up to the early part of World War II.    There was a song from 1942 called "Johnny Doughboy Found a Rose in Ireland." and a musical film the same year called "Johnny Doughboy."

However, this term was eventually replaced by the tern "G.I." meaning "Government Issue."

Although the word is most-connected with American soldiers in World War I, its origins are unclear.

During the Napoleonic Wars British sailors and soldiers in Spain certainly knew about fried flour dumplings called "doughboys," which eventually became doughnuts as we know them.

A non-military origin possibility might also have been from the apprenticed boys to bakers during the era who would have, of course, been called "dough-boys."  Also, in 19th century America, the term "doughboy" could mean stupid.

Neither an Apprentice or Stupid Be I.  (Well, Sometimes the Latter.)  --Cooter

Monday, July 25, 2016

America's "Doughboys"-- Part 1: A World War I Term

From Wikipedia.

Well, we found out in the last several posts, that the name "Doughboy" did not have anything to with the growing fondness of doughnuts that hit our soldiers during World War I.  I always figured it was because of the brownish color of their uniforms (although I always think of dough as being more whitish).

According to Wikipedia, Doughboy is an informal member of the United States Army and Marine Corps.  It especially applies to members of the American Expeditionary Army during World War I.

A popular mass-produced sculpture that was erected in front of many courthouses by a thankful public after they "boys" returned after the war in the 1920s was called "The Spirit of the American Doughboy."  There is one in front of the Wayne County Courthouse in Goldsboro, North Carolina.

However, it was initially used during the Mexican War 1846-1848.

Dough Me.  --Cooter

Sunday, July 24, 2016

National Doughnut Day-- Part 4: "Doughboys" to Doughnuts

Margaret Sheldon wrote that one busy day, that she made "22 pies, 300 doughnuts, 700 cups of coffee.

The women who did this soon became known as "Doughnut Girls."

This great popularized doughnuts which carried over when the men returned home.

There is, however, a misconception that the term "Doughboy" which was given to American soldiers during the war came from this love of doughnuts.  However, this term dates back to the Mexican War of 1846-1848.

During World War II, Red Cross volunteers also distributed doughnuts and became known as "Doughnut Dollies."


Saturday, July 23, 2016

National Doughnut Day-- Part 3: A World War I Connection

From Wikipedia.

Soon after the United States entered World War I, the Salvation Army sent people to France to find out how the organization could best serve the troops.  This group determined it could best do this by opening canteens/social centers called "huts" that could provide baked goods, writing supplies, stamps and clothes-mending services.

Oh yes, and COFFEE.

Typically, "huts" consisted of six people, four of whom would be women to "mother" the soldiers.  Huts were set up near U.S. training bases.

About 250 volunteers went to France and found that providing baked goods was difficult and two female volunteers, Margaret Sheldon and Helen Purviance, came up with the idea of providing doughnuts for the baked goods.

The doughnuts were an instant hit, and soldiers began visiting the huts in large numbers.


Friday, July 22, 2016

National Doughnut Day-- Part 2: "Doughnut Lassies"

Doughnut Day was established by the Salvation Army in 1938 to honor its Doughnut Lassies who served treats to soldiers during World War I.  They are credited with popularizing the doughnut in the United States when the troops returned home after the war.

The Salvation Army celebrated its first Doughnut Day in Chicago to help raise funds during the Great Depression.

I believe in Illinois, this is also connected with Cop on a Roof Day where police get up on the roofs of Dunkin' Donut stores to get people to come in and donate.


Thursday, July 21, 2016

You Missed National Doughnut Day, June 3rd-- Part 1

From the June 2, 2016, Goldsboro (NC) News-Argus "National Doughnut Day offers up chance to give."

On Friday, the Salvation Army and Krispy Kreme are celebrating National Doughnut Day.  This is celebrated every first Friday in June.

All day Friday, customers will receive a free doughnut of their choice and have the opportunity to donate to the Salvation Army.

The Salvation Army will have those familiar red kettles set up in Krispy Kremes to support the group's programs in Wayne and Sampson counties.

I am amazed that Krispy Kreme would be involved in this.

Mmmmm, Krispy Kreme.  --CootKreme

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Nine Famous Movie Sets Thanks to the Antiquities Act-- Part 2

5.  ACADIA NATIONAL PARK:  "Pet Semetery"

6.  CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK:  "Exorcist"  The infamous steps in Georgetown.

7.  ARCHES NATIONAL PARK:  "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade"

8.  ZION NATIONAL PARK:  "Butch Cassidy & the Sundance Kid"



Monday, July 18, 2016

Nine Famous Movie Sets Thanks to the Antiquities Act-- Part 1

From the August 28, 2014, Preservation Blog "9 Iconic Movie Sets, Starring the Antiquities Act" by Denise Ryan.

The Antiquities Act is considered America's first preservation law.  The 1906 law protects historical places across the U.S., many that have been featured in Hollywood blockbusters.

DEATH VALLEY NATIONAL PARK:  "Star Wars"  It was the desert planet Tatooine.

DEVIL'S TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT:  "Close Encounters of the Third Kind"

STATUE OF LIBERTY NATIONAL MONUMENT:  "Titanic", "Day After Tomorrow," "Splash,"

ELLIS ISLAND:  12 million immigrants came through here 1892-1954.  "Godfather"


Saturday, July 16, 2016

Founder of Chick-Fil-A S. Truett Cathy, Died in 2014

From the September 8, 2014, Yahoo! News.

Mr. Cathy, 93, was a devout Southern Baptist who founded the company in 1987.  It now has 1,800 locations in 40 U.S. states.  In keeping with his religious beliefs, all are closed on Sundays.

I must admit I love their cow advertising.

Actress Angela Paton Dies at Age 86: Was in the Movie "Groundhog Day"

From the May 30, 2016, Northwest Herald (McHenry County, Illinois) by AP.

Angela Paton, an actress best-known for appearing with Bill Murray in "Groundhog Day" has died.

Paton played Mrs. Lancaster, the kindly, elderly, small-town innkeeper who played host to Murray on his never-ending day in 1993's "Groundhog Day" movie.

She had 91 film and television credits, nearly all of them after she was in her late 50s.  before that she had a long stage career, mostly in the San Francisco Bay area.

I loved her replying to Bill Murray's question, "Do you have deja vu."  She said, "No, but I'll see if I can get them to make it."

Friday, July 15, 2016

Notable Burials in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery-- Part 2

Jack Johnson--  heavy weight boxer

Cyrus McCormick--  inventor, businessman

Joseph Medill--  publisher, mayor of Chicago

Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe--  architect

Potter Palmer--  businessman.  Owned the Palmer House Hotel and developed State Street in Chicago

Alan Pinkerton--  detective

George Pullman--  inventor, railroad industrialist, Pullman Cars

Louis Sullivan--  architect

Notable Burials in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Harold E. Goettler:  World War I Medal of Honor winner.

David Adler--  architect

John Peter Altgeld--  Illinois governor.  Altgeld Hall at NIU is named for him.

Phillip Danforth Armour--  meat packing

Daniel H. Burnham--  architect

Roger Ebert--  film critic

Marshall Field-- retailer

William LeBaron Jenney-- architect,  "Father of the Skyscraper"

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Illinois World War I Medal of Honor Recipient Fred E. Smith

1873-September 29, 1918.  Lt.Col., U.S. Army, 108th Infantry, 77th Division.  From Rockford, Illinois.

Communication with the forward regimental command was cut off.  He led twelve others to reestablish it and carry ammunition.  His guide became lost and they came under fire of German machine guns just 50 yards away.

Lt.Col. Smith told the others to take cover, drew his pistol and engaged the Germans.  He was wounded, but continued to fire until his group was out of danger.

"Refusing first aid treatment he then made his way in plain view of the enemy to a hand grenade dump and returned under continued heavy machine gun fire for the purpose of making another attack on the enemy emplacements.

"As he was attempting to ascertain the exact location of the nearest nest, he again fell, mortally wounded."

He is buried at the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial at Lorraine, France.

Illinois World War II Medal of Honor Recipient Thomas A. Pope

1894-1989.  Born in Chicago.

The last-surviving World War I Medal of Honor recipient., receiving it for action in Hamel, France on 4 July 1918.  His company was advancing behind tanks when they came under gunfire.He rushed forward alone against a machine gun nest.

Mr. Pope killed several Germans with his bayonet and stood astride the machine gun and held off the others until reinforcements arrived and captured them.

Buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Illinois World War I Medal of Honor Winner Weedon E. Osborne

Born 1992.  Died June 6, 1918.

Native of Chicago.  U.S. Navy, lieutenant Dental Corps, attached to 6th Regiment USMC.

During the advance on Bouresche, France, at the southern edge of the Belleau Woods, Lt. Osborne was rescuing wounded under fire and killed while carrying them to safety.

He is buried at Aisne-Marne American Cemetery and Memorial-Belleau in Lorraine, France.

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Illinois World War I Double Medal of Honor Winner: John J. Kelly

From Find-a-Grave

John J. Kelly was a double Medal of Honor recipient.  He was a private in the Marine Corps and fought at Chateau Thierry, St. Mihiel, Blanc Mont and the Meuse-Argonne.

At Blanc Mont Ridge, he single-handedly attacked a German machine gun nest.  Running through a barrage, he killed two and returned with eight prisoners.

His final resting place is at All Saints Catholic Cemetery in Des Plaines, Illinois.

He was awarded an Army and a Navy Medal of Honor 3 October 1918.

101-Year-old Message in a Bottle Finally Arrives in 2014

From the February 8, 2014, Yahoo! News "Return to sender: 101-Year-Old Message in a Bottle Finally Arrives" by Jaime Lutz.

It was thrown into the ocean in 1913 and recently found by a fisherman off the coast of Germany.  It was returned to Richard Platz's granddaughter, Angela Erdman, 62.

It was found last month by fisherman Kourad Fischer and was mostly indecipherable, but the address and name were clear as is his request to have it forwarded back to him.

Thought to be the oldest message in a bottle in the world, it was written when Plate was 20 years old.  He died at age 54.

Erdmann never met her grandfather, but has heard a lot of stories about him.


Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Ten Facts About President Andrew Jackson-- Part 2: Duels and a Giant Block of Cheese

6.  Fought Indians but adopted two of them  As president, he signed the Indian Removal Act which led to the Trail of Tears tragedy.

7.  Was a friend of Aaron Burr.

8.  Had a long history of dueling, being in at least a dozen and killed a man in one of them.

9.  Beat up a man who attempted to assassinate him in 1806.

10.  He really did have a giant block of cheese in the White House in 1835.  It was a 1,400 pound block of cheese which kept for two years.

Reckon I'll have a Slice o' That Cheese.  --DaCheese

Ten Facts About President Andrew Jackson- Part 1: Self-Taught Lawyer and Military Leader

From the March 14, 2014, National Constitution Center "10 birthday facts about President Andrew Jackson."  His birthday is March 15, born either in North Carolina or South Carolina on March 15, 1767.

1.  He was a Revolutionary War POW.  His mother and two brothers did not survive the war.

2.  Jackson, like Lincoln, was a self-taught frontier lawyer.

3.  Served in Congress at a young age, Tennessee's first Congressman in 1796.  Became a Senator nine months later but quit seven months after that and returned to Tennessee.

4.  Made money in the cotton business and owned slaves.  He bought Hermitage plantation in 1804 and owned nine slaves.  When he became president, he owned more than 100.

5.  Self-taught military leader.  Became Tennessee's militia leader in 1802.  His victory in the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend led to a commission in the U.S. Army where he defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815.


There Was Another Auto Racing Track Near Indianapolis-- Part 2: Bloody Jungle Park Speedway

In places, you can still find remnants of the track, a combination of gravel and oil.  The grandstands, still standing as already mentioned, were built in 1947 and the track opened in 1927.

Jungle Park was bloody almost since the beginning.  In the track's second season, race official Earl Parker was mowed down by a speeding racer as he repaired the track.  The following July, a spectator was killed..  Two months later its first driver was lost and the next year another spectator was knocked unconscious when a race car flew into a fence post causing it to hit him.

Three more drivers were killed at Jungle Park the next two years.  At the time, seatbelts were nonexistent and emergency medical care rudimentary, but that was racing back then.  Even the Indianapolis Motor Speeedway, a sophisticated, well-funded racing operation, had 22 fatalities in the 1930s, three of them spectators.


There Was Another Auto Racetrack Near Indianapolis-- Part 1: Nature Reclaiming Track Now

From the May 27, 2016, Indianapolis Star "Once a racetrack, now a wooded lot" by Will Higgins.

It was located an hour west of Indianapolis in Parke County (famous for its 31 covered bridges) and, surprisingly, the wooden grandstand still stands though in an advanced state of dilapidation.

This is about all that remains of the Jungle Park Speedway, a half-mile oval which was once one of the premier speedways in the Midwest in the early 20th century.  It was the proving ground for some of the top American race car drivers.  Eight winners there went on to win the Indy 500, including Wilbur Shaw who won it in 1937, 1939 and 1940.

The track closed in 1960 after one more in a long line of horrific accidents.

Nature is now reclaiming the track.


Monday, July 11, 2016

N.C. Shrimp Was a Really Big Deal-- Part 3: Started in North Carolina

It isn'y widely known, but fishing for shrimp in the open sea, the development that really made the shrimp fisher big business had its beginning in North carolina.  It came sometime around 1915, when some fishermen in the Beaufort area noticed unusually large shrimp being taken in the ocean's deeper waters, instead of the inside waters.

It wasn't long before today's great shrimp trawling gear was developed.

Commercial fishermen in the South lost little time in adopting the methods in use by tar Heel shrimpers and the South's lucrative shrimp industry began.


Saturday, July 9, 2016

N.C. Shrimp Was a Really Big Deal-- Part 2: Using the "Try" Net

Any good shrimper knows that it is best to go for the sea bottoms that the little jumping jacks prefer.  This may be mud, clay, sand or shell.  Usually, shrimpers will throw out the "try" net, which is smaller and more easily handled than the big net.  If the quantity of shrimp brought up then is big enough, then the main net goes out.  Then begins the long, slow drag along the ocean floor.

The trawl then gets heavily weighed down with not only shrimp but small fish and all sots of sea life like conchs to starfish as well as other stuff..  A power winch is used to haul it in where the contents are unceremoniously dumped out on the stern deck and the process of sorting the shrimp out begins.

Most shrimp boats bring their catch in in iced-holds.  Shrimp heads are either taken off on the boat or on shore because spoilage occurs faster if they are left on.  The bigger the shrimp, the fewer  there are in a pound and the higher the price.


Friday, July 8, 2016

North Carolina Shrimp Was a Really Big Deal-- Part 1: Big Business

From the June 18, 2016, Raleigh (N.C.) News & Observer "Past Times" by Teresa Leonard.

Owners and operators of a large fleet of boats go out everyday from coastal points, searching for "white gold" as they call the wily shrimp.  And they have lots of buyers, many from New York to go to northern markets on ice.

Many other Tar Heel shrimp go to processing plants in other states as there are few in state.  There they are breaded, frozen and shipped nationwide.

How many shrimp are caught varies, but in 1965, some 5.4 million pounds were caught for $1.7 million. Today, it is the #1 dollar-making fishing catch.

Traditionally, the North Carolina shrimping season opens when they have grown big enough for 40 of them (70 with heads pinched off) to make a pound.

A Real Shrimp-Lover Here.  --Cootshrimp

Finch's Restaurant in Raleigh, N.C., Relocating

From the June 18, 2016, Raleigh (N.C.) News & Observer "After seven decades Finch's must relocate" by Sarah Nagem.

The restaurant opened during the 1940s on Peace Street in downtown Raleigh and the building will be demolished when the state rebuilds the Capital Boulevard bridge.

And, they have many, many very loyal customers, but this fall, it will be serving its last breakfasts from this location.

Howard Finch opened it in the 1940s when Raleigh had fewer than 50,000 people, about one-ninth of its current population.  It has changed owners several times over the years, but still a place where the waitress will call you "hon."

Nothing about the place is fancy.

Since 1945.  Located at 401 W. Peace Street.  Open 6 a.m. to 3 p.m..

Blueberry Pancakes!!  --DaBlueCoot

Anti-Submarine Seagulls in World War I

From the March 8, 2014, Listverse "10 Totally Bizarre Plans to Win Wars" by Marc V.


During World War I, the British researched ways to battle the growing U-boat menace.

One plan was to send people out in rafts to smash periscopes with a hammer.  Another suggested training seagulls to sit on periscopes and defecate.

A man by the name of Thomas Mills designed and patented a diving submarine with food on the periscope to train gulls to approach it, perch, eat and hopefully leave a calling card to blind the German crew as to surface going-ons.

Oh Well.  Gulls Do That Anyway.  --Cootergull

Thursday, July 7, 2016

Illinois Beach State Park: Not a Civil War Prison

From Wikipedia.

Illinois Beach State Park was established in 1948 with both North and South Units that stretch for six and a half miles along the Lake Michigan shoreline.

The Northern Unit was previously Camp Logan which I have been writing about in recent posts.

The Wikipedia account and another account says that Camp Logan was also a prisoner of war camp during the Civil War.  I had never heard that there was a Civil War prison there (and I am quite a big Civil War buff).

The Illinois in the Civil War site does not list it as a prison.  It does give the name of four prisons where captured Confederates were kept in the state:  Alton Penitentiary, Camp Butler (Springfield) Camp Douglas (Chicago) and Rock Island Prison.

And, besides that, Camp Logan wasn't established until 1892, long after the Civil War.


Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Illinois' Camp Logan-- Part 3: Echelon and Aiken

Echelon Target System and Aiken targets were used.  An Echelon Target System was a rifle range with various distances to the targets.  Soldiers would qualify at the 200 yard one and proceed every 100 yards to as far as he could successfully hit the Aiken targets.

Use of Camp Logan by the Illinois National Guard was heavy from 1902 on.

There was also live fire by artillery and Gatlin guns.  During World War I, the nearby Great Lakes Naval Training Station took over Camp Logan for overflow.  The WPA made improvements from 1934-1937.

Great Lakes used the base again during World War II.

The caretakers cottage and pump house from the 1890s are still there.  there is also a flagpole, 2 garages, headquarters, one barracks as well as one tool and two store rooms remaining from the 1910s.


Illinois' Camp Logan-- Part 2: So, What Are "Butt Houses?"

From the Illinois Department of Natural Resources.

By 1892, with no major world threats around, 1/3 of Illinois' militia were stationed around Chicago where the need for a quick deployment was needed in case of labor strife  In 1892, the Illinois state legislature purchased a 220-acre tract of land in a desolate area north of Chicago on the shore of Lake Michigan for construction of a rifle range and a training area.  An additional 40 acres were purchased in 1899.

Construction of buildings began in 1893.  By 1900, 4 regimental barracks, range offices, a headquarters office, mess hall, kitchen, tool house, barn, 8 butt houses (equipment storage sheds incorporated into an earthen/concrete berm, or "butt" behind the targets on the range).


Illinois' Camp Logan-- Part 1: Named for Civil War General John Logan

From Wikipedia.

This is where the 33rd Infantry Division (a National Guard division) activated for World War I in July 1917, 100 years ago.

Named after famed Illinois Civil War General John Alexander Logan, was an Illinois National Guard base and rifle range used from 1892 to the early 1970s.  Several buildings survive and it is listed on the NRHP

Land for it bought in 1892 and by 1900 had a headquarters , four regimental barracks and other structures.

It is located at Illinois Beach State Park in Zion, in the state's northeast corner by Lake Michigan.


Tuesday, July 5, 2016

33rd U.S. Infantry Division-- Part 4: Still Around As a Brigade

The 33rd Infantry Division also fought during World War II.  It was reformed as the All-Illinois National Guard Division in 1946.

It was deactivated in 1968, but replaced with the 33rd Infantry Brigade.


Monday, July 4, 2016

33rd U.S. Infantry Division in World War I-- Part 3: Medal of Honor Recipient Sgt. Willie Sandlin

The first two blog entries are on March 12, 2014.  Hit the 33rd Division label to go to them.

As we approach the 100th anniversary of the U.S. entry into World War I next year.

Camp Grant, where the 33rd Infantry Division was inactivated was in Rockford, Illinois.  Its site is presently Rockford Airport.


Sgt. Willie Sandlin of Co. A, 132nd Infantry, 33rd Division, from Kentucky.

Single-handedly destroyed three German machine gun emplacements and killed 24 at Bois de Forges, France.

He died in 1949 of a lingering lung infection from a poison gas attack at the Battle of Argonne.  Sgt. Sandlin also fought in the War of 1812.

A Hero.

10 Surprising Ways We're Exactly Like Our Ancestors-- Part 2: We've Always Loved Our Alcohol

5.  We've always loved our alcohol   Dating back to 10,000 BC.

4.  We need our swearing.

3.  Gambling has always been popular.

2.  We've always loved our pets.

1.  We want to leave our mark.

So Do Dogs.  --Cooter

Friday, July 1, 2016

Ten Surprising Ways We Are Like Our Ancestors-- Part 1: Ozzi Had One

From the March 8, 2014, Listverse by Debra Kelly.

10.  Trashtalking   Traced to Athens 1500 years ago.

9.  Teenage Graffiti  Traced to 35,00 years ago.

8.  We Value Our Most Mundane Thoughts     Facebook.  Traced to Pompeii.

7.  Jokes about sex, mothers and abstract-minded professors were always funny.     Traced to Iraq 3,500 years ago.

6.  We're still not sure about our tattoos.    Ozzi the Iceman had them as well.

Tat Me Wight to the Bar.  --DaCoot

White Star Line-- Part 2: Joined With Cunard Line

In 1934, the White Star Line merged with its chief rival, the Cunard Line and the two then became known as the Cunard-White Line.  I always get the two two confused and often refer to the Titanic as a Cunard ship.

In 1950, the Cunard Line then began to operate solely by itself and did so until 2005.  It is now part of the Carnival Corporation.  So, when you go on a Carnival Cruise, you are on s hip whose company history goes back to the Titanic and into the 1800s.

Cunard ships now use the term White Star to describe the level of customer care expected.  In other words, a lot.

The first White Star Company was established in 1845 in Liverpool and focused on the United Kingdom-Australia trade routes.

Crusing With the Coot--  Cooter

White Star Line-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Since I have been doing several blog entries of late on the Titanic, I might as well talk about the company that owned the big ship.

The official name of the company was the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, or White Star Line of Boston Packet, more commonly known simply as the White Star Line.

The company was a prominent British shipping endeavor, known for its ground-breaking vessel, the Oceanic in 1870, the RMS Titanic and the World War I loss of the Titanic's sister ship, the Britannic.  Their ships generally ended with the letters "ic."


Secret Alcatraz Tunnel Found in 2014

From the Feb. 28, 2014, Yahoo! News "Under the Rock: Alcatraz's secret tunnel discovered" by Mike Krumboltz.

Researchers from Texas A&M, using ground penetrating radar discovered a network of tunnels under the island in San Francisco Bay.

These tunnels date from the 1800s when there was a fort on the island (before it became a prison). They also found a building that was used for a magazine for the powder and shells.

Alcatraz became an infamous federal prison and shut down in 1963 over fears of the Bay Area weather impacting on the walls and the escape of three prisoners.

Wouldn't It have Been Something Had Those Tunnels Been Made By Escaping Prisoners.  --Cooter